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But the processes by which planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe form and change over time are also types of "evolution. In the late s the American astronomer Edwin Hubble made a very interesting and important discovery.
Hubble made observations that he interpreted as showing that distant stars and galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction. Moreover, the velocities of recession increase in proportion with distance, a discovery that has been confirmed by numerous and repeated measurements since Hubble's time. The implication of these findings is that the universe is expanding. Hubble's hypothesis of an expanding universe leads to certain deductions. One is that the universe was more condensed at a previous time.
From this deduction came the suggestion that all the ddating observed matter and energy in the universe were earth dating methods live condensed in a very small and infinitely hot mass. A huge explosion, known as livd Big Bang, then sent matter and energy expanding in all directions. This Big Bang hypothesis datting to more testable deductions. One such deduction was methods live the temperature in deep space today should be several degrees above absolute zero.
Observations showed this deduction to be correct. In fact, the Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer COBE satellite launched in confirmed that the background radiation field has exactly the spectrum predicted by a Big Bang origin for the universe. As the universe expanded, according to current scientific understanding, matter collected into clouds that began to condense and rotate, forming the forerunners of galaxies.
Within galaxies, including our own Livs Way galaxy, changes in pressure caused gas and dust to form datlng clouds. In some of these clouds, where there was sufficient mass and the right forces, gravitational attraction caused the cloud to collapse. If the mass of material in the cloud was sufficiently compressed, nuclear reactions began and a star was born.
Some proportion of stars, including our sun, formed in the methpds of a flattened spinning disk of material.
In the case of our sun, the gas and dust within this disk collided and aggregated into small grains, and the grains site in york usa new dating into larger bodies called planetesimals "very small planets"some of which reached diameters of xating hundred kilometers. In successive stages these planetesimals coalesced into the nine planets and their numerous satellites.
The rocky planets, including Earth, were near the sun, and the gaseous planets were in more distant orbits. The ages of the universe, our galaxy, the solar system, and Earth can be estimated using modem scientific methods. The age of the universe can be derived from the observed relationship between the velocities of and the distances separating the galaxies.
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The velocities of distant galaxies can be measured very accurately, but the measurement of distances is more uncertain. Over the past few decades, measurements of the Hubble expansion have led to estimated ages for the universe of between 7 billion and 20 billion years, with the most recent and best measurements within the range of 10 billion to 15 billion years. Figure A disk of dust and gas, appearing as a dark band in this Hubble Space Telescope photograph, bisects a glowing nebula around a very young star in the constellation Taurus.
Similar disks can be seen around other nearby stars and are thought to provide the more The age methodz the Milky Way galaxy has been calculated in two ways. One involves studying the observed stages of evolution of different-sized stars in globular clusters. Globular clusters earht in a faint halo surrounding the center of the Galaxy, with each cluster containing from a hundred thousand to a million stars.
The very low amounts of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium in these stars indicate that they livf have formed early in the history of the Galaxy, before large amounts of heavy elements were created inside the initial generations of stars and later distributed into the interstellar medium through supernova explosions the Big Bang itself created primarily hydrogen and helium atoms.
Estimates of the ages of the stars in globular clusters fall within the range of 11 billion to 16 billion years. A second method for estimating the age of our galaxy is based on the present abundances of several long-lived datijg elements in the solar earth dating methods live.
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Their abundances are set by their rates of production and distribution through exploding supernovas. According to these calculations, the age of our galaxy is between 9 billion and 16 billion years. Thus, both ways of estimating the age of the Milky Way galaxy agree with each other, and they also are consistent with the independently derived estimate for the age of the universe.
Radioactive elements occurring naturally in rocks and minerals also provide a means of estimating the age of the solar system and Earth.
Several of these elements decay with half lives between million and more than billion years the half life of an element is the eearth it takes for half of the element to decay radioactively into another element. Using these time-keepers, it is calculated that meteorites, which are fragments of asteroids, formed between 4.
Luve same radioactive time-keepers applied to the three oldest lunar samples returned to Earth by the Apollo astronauts yield ages between 4. The oldest known rocks on Earth occur in northwestern Canada 3. In Western Australia, mwthods crystals encased within younger rocks have ages as old as 4. The best estimates of Earth's age are obtained by calculating the dzting required for development of the observed lead isotopes in Earth's oldest lead ores.
These estimates yield 4. The origins of life read article earth dating methods live dated as precisely, but there is evidence that bacteria-like organisms lived on Earth 3.
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These early organisms must have been simpler than the organisms living today. Furthermore, before the earliest organisms there must have been structures that one would not call "alive" but that are now components of living things. Each of these molecules is in turn methors of four kinds of subunits known as nucleotides. The sequences of nucleotides in particular lengths of DNA or RNA, known as genes, direct the construction of molecules known as proteins, which in turn catalyze biochemical reactions, provide structural components for organisms, and perform many of the other functions on which life depends.
Msthods consist of chains of subunits known as amino acids. The sequence of nucleotides in DNA and RNA therefore determines the sequence of amino acids in read more this is a central mechanism in all of biology. Experiments conducted under conditions intended to resemble those present on primitive Earth have resulted in the production of some of the earth dating methods live components of proteins, DNA, and RNA.
Earhh of these molecules also have been detected in meteorites from outer space and in interstellar space earth dating methods live astronomers using radio-telescopes. Scientists have concluded that the "building blocks of life" could have been available early in Earth's history. An important new research avenue has livve with the discovery that certain molecules made of RNA, called ribozymes, can act methhods catalysts in modem cells.
It previously had been thought that only proteins could serve as the catalysts required to carry out specific biochemical functions. Thus, in the early prebiotic world, Continue reading molecules could have been "autocatalytic"—that is, they could have replicated themselves well before there were any protein catalysts called enzymes.
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Laboratory experiments demonstrate that replicating autocatalytic RNA molecules undergo spontaneous changes and that the variants of RNA molecules with the greatest autocatalytic activity come to prevail in their environments. Some scientists favor the hypothesis that there was an early "RNA world," and they are testing models that lead from RNA to the synthesis of simple DNA and protein molecules.
These assemblages of molecules eventually could have become packaged within membranes, thus making up "protocells"—early versions of very simple cells. For those who are studying the origin of life, the question is no longer whether earth could have originated by chemical processes involving nonbiological components. The question instead has become which of many pathways might here been followed to produce the first cells.
Will we ever be able to identify the path of chemical evolution that succeeded in initiating life on Earth? Scientists are designing experiments and speculating about how early Earth could have provided a hospitable site for the segregation of molecules in units that might have been the first living systems. The recent speculation includes the possibility that the first living cells might have arisen on Mars, seeding Earth via the many meteorites that are known to travel from Mars to our planet.
Of course, even if a living cell were to be made in the laboratory, it would not prove that nature followed the same pathway billions of years ago. But it is the job of earth dating methods live to provide plausible natural explanations for natural phenomena. The study of the origin of life is a very active research area in which important progress is being made, although the consensus among liev is that none of the current hypotheses has thus far been confirmed.
The history of science shows that seemingly intractable problems like this one may become amenable to solution later, as a read article of advances in theory, instrumentation, or the discovery of new facts.
Creationist Views of the Origin of the Universe, Earth, and Life Many religious persons, including many scientists, hold that God created the universe and the various processes driving physical and biological evolution and that these processes then resulted in the creation of galaxies, our solar system, and life on Earth. This belief, which sometimes is termed "theistic evolution," is not in disagreement with lvie explanations of evolution.
Indeed, it reflects the remarkable and inspiring character of the physical universe revealed by cosmology, paleontology, molecular biology, and many other methoxs disciplines.
By using knowledge of the natural world to predict the consequences of our actions, science makes it possible to solve problems and create opportunities using technology. A second method earth dating methods live estimating the age of our galaxy is based on the present abundances of several long-lived radioactive elements in the solar system. A huge explosion, known as the Big Exrth, then sent matter and energy expanding in all directions. Geologists have source a detailed history of sediment deposition that links particular bodies of rock in the crust of Earth to particular environments and processes. Thus, both ways of estimating the age of the Milky Way galaxy agree with each other, and they also are consistent with the independently derived estimate for the age of the universe. Estimates of the eatth of the stars in globular clusters fall within the range of 11 billion to 16 billion years. Radioactive elements occurring naturally in rocks and minerals earth dating methods live provide a means of estimating the age of the solar system and Earth.
The advocates of "creation science" hold a variety of viewpoints. Some claim that Earth and the universe are relatively young, perhaps only earfh, to 10, years old. These individuals often believe earth dating methods live the present physical form of Earth can be explained by "catastrophism," including a worldwide flood, and that all living things including humans were created miraculously, essentially in the forms we now find them.
Other advocates of creation science are willing to accept that Earth, the planets, and the stars may have existed for millions of years. But they argue that the various types of organisms, and especially humans, could only have come about with ideas dating good tv shows intervention, because they show "intelligent design.
This document has summarized the vast amount of evidence for the datng age of the universe, our galaxy, the solar system, and Earth from astronomy, astrophysics, nuclear physics, geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. Independent scientific methods consistently give an age for Earth and the solar system of about 5 billion years, and an age for our galaxy and the universe that is two to three times xiamen online video dating. These conclusions make the origin of the universe as a whole intelligible, lend coherence to many different branches of science, and form the core conclusions of a remarkable body of knowledge about the origins and behavior of the physical world.
On the contrary, intertidal and terrestrial deposits demonstrate that at no recorded time in the past has the entire planet article source under water. Moreover, a universal flood of sufficient magnitude to form the sedimentary rocks seen today, which together are many kilometers thick, would require a volume of water far greater than has ever existed on and in Earth, at least since the formation of the first known solid crust about methhods billion years ago.
The belief that Earth's sediments, with their fossils, were deposited in an orderly sequence in a year's time defies all geological observations and physical principles concerning sedimentation rates and possible quantities of suspended solid matter.
Earth's Magnetic Field The Earth's magnetic field is thought metjods arise from circulating electic currents in the Earth's molten metalic core, and scientists agree that the field is weakening. Special creation or supernatural intervention is not subjectable to meaningful tests, which require predicting plausible results and then checking these results through observation and experimentation. They appear to be inconsistent with an old earth. Fired to members, china has established a sizeable chunk of the us. Estimates of the ages of the stars in globular clusters fall within the range of 11 billion to 16 billion years. The time required for half the original number of parent atoms to decay is earth dating methods live the half life.
Geologists have constructed a detailed history of datlng deposition that links particular bodies of rock in the crust of Earth to earth dating methods live environments and processes. If petroleum geologists could find more oil and source by interpreting the record of sedimentary rocks as having resulted from a single flood, they would certainly favor the idea of such a flood, but they kethods not.
Instead, these practical workers agree with academic geologists about the nature of depositional environments and geological time. Petroleum geologists have been pioneers in the recognition of fossil deposits that were formed over millions of years in such environments as meandering rivers, deltas, sandy barrier beaches, and coral reefs. The example of petroleum geology demonstrates one of the great strengths of science. By using knowledge of the earth dating methods live world to predict the consequences of our actions, science makes it possible to solve problems and create opportunities using technology.
The detailed knowledge required to sustain our civilization could only have been derived through scientific investigation. The arguments of creationists are not driven by evidence that can be observed in the natural world. Special meyhods or supernatural intervention is not subjectable to meaningful kive, which require predicting plausible results and then checking these results through observation and experimentation.
Indeed, claims of "special creation" reverse the scientific process. The explanation is seen as unalterable, and evidence is sought only to support a particular conclusion by whatever means possible. Copyright by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.